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Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the arteries are gradually blocked due to accumulation of fatty material under the internal lining of the artery wall, and an inflammatory response develops in which plaque strands in the walls of the artery that is composed of LDL cholesterol, fatty components, and accumulated white blood cells Due to the inflammatory process. Atherosclerosis can develop in different arteries in the body and damage organs that are nourished by them: brain, heart, kidneys, limbs and more. Parts of the plaque can detach from the artery wall and block another area.
The disease is the main cause of death in the Western world, more than any other cause of death. The hereditary process is a chronic and asymptomatic process (not showing signs), which begins at the earliest age and continues to the point of advanced artery obstruction. Symptoms of the disease may be expressed at later ages, with the rate of obstruction reaching 90%. The main symptom is pain or cramps due to lack of oxygen to the required organ.
Atherosclerosis can occur almost anywhere in the body. Coronary arterial atherosclerosis affects arteries that lead to blood to the heart muscle itself, and can cause angina and myocardial infarction. Peripheral arterial artery damage can affect any artery in the body, especially the lower aorta, the arteries of the limbs, the arteries of the brain, and even The arteries of the eyes. In these cases, atherosclerosis may cause walking difficulties (blockage of the arteries of the limbs), vision difficulties (blockage of the arteries of the eyes), and so on. In severe cases, necrosis of various organs such as intestines, spleen, liver, stomach, arms and legs may occur, and even a cerebral event in the case of sclerosis in the cerebral arteries.
In the case of coronary atherosclerosis, the metastatic lesion develops in the branching of the large arteries of the heart. Streptococcus develops due to oxidation of oxidized cholesterol (ester cholesterol) into the walls of the arteries, under the endothelial cells (the sub-endothelial space), oxidation and accumulation in space. In addition, there is accumulation of platelets, fibrous elements such as fibrinogen, there is a secretion of growth factors, there is an intervention of the immune system, especially inflammatory cells and more.
These processes lead to the development of atherosclerotic lesion, leading to blockage of the arteries and decrease in oxygen supply to the muscles and tissues. The resulting lesion may become unstable, and parts of it may detach and drift into the blood stream, reach the coronary arteries, block them, and block the heart muscle. Risk Factors To date, several risk factors have been known to affect the development of the disease. These risk factors are called "atrogenic factors" (catalysts of the ether process).
These factors may increase the development of plaque, lead to the rapid involvement of macrophages and the development of acute inflammation in the lesion area. In later stages, it is possible to expect cell involvement from the media and adventitia in the plaque process. Risk factors: High-fat trans-fatty acids: A chemical process that has been transformed from unsaturated fat to saturated fat.
Smoking: Smoking can increase the production of free radicals in the body and increase the amount of chemicals in the blood. The free radicals and chemicals are very reactive molecules that can participate in LDL cholesterol oxidation processes in the blood and cause it to accumulate in the artery walls. Considered one of the most dangerous factors. Being overweight is a risk factor. Lack of physical activity delays the development of atherosclerosis.
This is also considered a "strong" risk factor. Diabetes and covert diabetes. Hypertension Human genetic susceptibility to the disease is high risk of developing the disease faster. Other factors such as excess calcium The body can not remove the calcium from the body (usually does not happen) And chronic renal failure. Dr. Jacob Fogelman is an expert on family medicine, diabetes and obesity